The Eiffel Tower Is an Iron Lattice

Tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France

The Eiffel Tower

La bout Eiffel

Seen from the Champ de Mars

Record height
Tallest in the world from 1889 to 1930[I]
General data
Type Observation tower
Broadcasting tower
Location 7th arrondissement, Paris, France
Coordinates


48°51′29.6″N
2°17′twoscore.two″East


 / 

48.858222°Northward 2.294500°E
 /
48.858222; ii.294500




Coordinates:



48°51′29.vi″N
2°17′40.2″E


 / 

48.858222°North 2.294500°Eastward
 /
48.858222; 2.294500




Construction started 28 Jan 1887; 135 years agone
 (28 January 1887)
Completed 15 March 1889; 133 years ago
 (15 March 1889)
Opening 31 March 1889; 133 years ago
 (31 March 1889)
Owner City of Paris, French republic
Management
Société d’Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel

(SETE)
Height
Architectural 300 grand (984 ft)[i]
Tip 330 m (ane,083 ft)
Top floor 276 g (906 ft)[1]
Technical details
Floor count iii[2]
Lifts/elevators 8[two]
Design and construction
Architect Stephen Sauvestre
Structural engineer Maurice Koechlin
Émile Nouguier
Main contractor Compagnie des Etablissements Eiffel
Website
toureiffel.paris/en
References
I.

^

Eiffel Belfry at
Emporis

The
Eiffel Tower
(

EYE-fəl
; French:
bout Eiffel

[tuʁ‿ɛfɛl]
(



listen

)
) is a wrought-fe lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. Information technology is named subsequently the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower.

Locally nicknamed “La dame de fer” (French for “Iron Lady”), information technology was constructed from 1887 to 1889 as the centerpiece of the 1889 World’southward Fair and was initially criticized by some of France’s leading artists and intellectuals for its pattern, only information technology has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world.[3]
The Eiffel Tower is the most visited monument with an entrance fee in the world; 6.91 meg people ascended it in 2015. The Tower was made a Monument historique in 1964 and named function of UNESCO World Heritage Site (“Paris, Banks of the Seins”) in 1991.[4]

The tower is 330 metres (1,083 ft) tall,[5]
nigh the same pinnacle as an 81-storey edifice, and the tallest structure in Paris. Its base is square, measuring 125 metres (410 ft) on each side. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the tallest man-made structure in the globe, a title information technology held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York Metropolis was finished in 1930. It was the kickoff structure in the world to surpass both the 200-metre and 300-metre marking in elevation. Due to the add-on of a dissemination aerial at the summit of the belfry in 1957, it is at present taller than the Chrysler Edifice by 5.2 metres (17 ft). Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second tallest free-standing construction in France after the Millau Viaduct.

The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second levels. The top level’southward upper platform is 276 m (906 ft) above the ground – the highest ascertainment deck accessible to the public in the European Spousal relationship. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift to the get-go and second levels. The climb from footing level to the starting time level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the 2nd. Although in that location is a staircase to the top level, it is usually accessible merely by lift.

History

Origin

The design of the Eiffel Tower is attributed to Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers working for the Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel. It was envisioned after discussion nigh a suitable centerpiece for the proposed 1889 Exposition Universelle, a world’south off-white to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution. Eiffel openly best-selling that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in 1853.[6]
In May 1884, working at habitation, Koechlin made a sketch of their idea, described by him as “a great pylon, consisting of four lattice girders standing apart at the base and coming together at the elevation, joined together by metallic trusses at regular intervals”.[vii]
Eiffel initially showed niggling enthusiasm, but he did approve farther study, and the two engineers and so asked Stephen Sauvestre, the head of the company’south architectural department, to contribute to the pattern. Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, and other embellishments.

The new version gained Eiffel’s support: he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin, Nougier, and Sauvestre had taken out, and the pattern was put on brandish at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the fall of 1884 under the company proper noun. On 30 March 1885, Eiffel presented his plans to the

Société des Ingénieurs Civils
; later discussing the technical issues and emphasising the practical uses of the tower, he finished his talk by maxim the belfry would symbolise

[n]ot only the art of the modern engineer, but also the century of Industry and Scientific discipline in which we are living, and for which the way was prepared past the great scientific movement of the eighteenth century and by the Revolution of 1789, to which this monument will exist congenital as an expression of French republic’due south gratitude.[eight]

Niggling progress was fabricated until 1886, when Jules Grévy was re-elected every bit president of French republic and Édouard Lockroy was appointed as government minister for merchandise. A budget for the exposition was passed and, on i May, Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the open competition being held for a centrepiece to the exposition, which finer fabricated the selection of Eiffel’s design a foregone conclusion, as entries had to include a study for a 300 thou (980 ft) four-sided metal tower on the Gnaw de Mars.[eight]
(A 300-metre tower was then considered a herculean engineering endeavour). On 12 May, a commission was ready to examine Eiffel’s scheme and its rivals, which, a month afterward, decided that all the proposals except Eiffel’s were either impractical or lacking in details.

After some debate about the exact location of the belfry, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887. Eiffel signed information technology acting in his ain capacity rather than as the representative of his company, the contract granting him i.five meg francs toward the construction costs: less than a quarter of the estimated 6.v 1000000 francs. Eiffel was to receive all income from the commercial exploitation of the belfry during the exhibition and for the next 20 years. He later established a separate company to manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself.[ix]


Artists’ protest

Caricature of Gustave Eiffel comparing the Eiffel tower to the Pyramids, published in
Le Temps, February 14, 1887.

The proposed tower had been a bailiwick of controversy, drawing criticism from those who did not believe it was feasible and those who objected on artistic grounds. Prior to the Eiffel Tower’s construction, no structure had always been constructed to a pinnacle of 300 m, or even 200 m for that thing,[10]
and many people believed it was impossible. These objections were an expression of a long-standing debate in French republic virtually the human relationship between architecture and technology. It came to a caput every bit work began at the Champ de Mars: a “Committee of Three Hundred” (one member for each metre of the tower’south height) was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most of import figures of the arts, such as William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Guy de Maupassant, Charles Gounod and Jules Massenet. A petition called “Artists against the Eiffel Tower” was sent to the Minister of Works and Commissioner for the Exposition, Adolphe Alphand, and it was published by
Le Temps
on 14 February 1887:

Nosotros, writers, painters, sculptors, architects and passionate devotees of the hitherto untouched dazzler of Paris, protestation with all our force, with all our indignation in the name of slighted French sense of taste, against the erection … of this useless and monstrous Eiffel Tower … To bring our arguments domicile, imagine for a moment a giddy, ridiculous tower dominating Paris like a gigantic black smokestack, crushing under its barbarian majority Notre Dame, the Tour Saint-Jacques, the Louvre, the Dome of les Invalides, the Arc de Triomphe, all of our humiliated monuments will disappear in this ghastly dream. And for 20 years … we shall meet stretching like a absorb of ink the mean shadow of the hateful column of bolted sheet metal.[11]

Gustave Eiffel responded to these criticisms by comparing his belfry to the Egyptian pyramids: “My tower volition be the tallest building ever erected by man. Will it non as well be grandiose in its manner? And why would something beauteous in Arab republic of egypt go hideous and ridiculous in Paris?”[12]
These criticisms were also dealt with by Édouard Lockroy in a letter of support written to Alphand, sardonically saying,[thirteen]
“Judging by the stately swell of the rhythms, the beauty of the metaphors, the elegance of its delicate and precise style, i can tell this protest is the result of collaboration of the most famous writers and poets of our time”, and he explained that the protestation was irrelevant since the projection had been decided upon months before, and construction on the tower was already nether style.

Indeed, Garnier was a fellow member of the Tower Commission that had examined the various proposals, and had raised no objection. Eiffel was similarly unworried, pointing out to a journalist that information technology was premature to judge the event of the belfry solely on the basis of the drawings, that the Champ de Mars was distant plenty from the monuments mentioned in the protest for at that place to be little risk of the belfry overwhelming them, and putting the aesthetic argument for the belfry: “Do not the laws of natural forces ever conform to the secret laws of harmony?”[14]

Some of the protesters changed their minds when the tower was congenital; others remained unconvinced.[15]
Guy de Maupassant supposedly ate lunch in the tower’south eating place every day considering it was the ane identify in Paris where the tower was not visible.[16]

By 1918, it had become a symbol of Paris and of France subsequently Guillaume Apollinaire wrote a nationalist poem in the shape of the tower (a calligram) to limited his feelings about the state of war against Germany.[17]
Today, it is widely considered to be a remarkable piece of structural art, and is oft featured in films and literature.

Construction

Work on the foundations started on 28 January 1887.[18]
Those for the eastward and s legs were straightforward, with each leg resting on four 2 g (6.6 ft) physical slabs, one for each of the primary girders of each leg. The westward and north legs, being closer to the river Seine, were more complicated: each slab needed two piles installed past using compressed-air caissons xv 1000 (49 ft) long and 6 m (20 ft) in diameter driven to a depth of 22 1000 (72 ft)[19]
to back up the concrete slabs, which were 6 m (20 ft) thick. Each of these slabs supported a cake of limestone with an inclined elevation to bear a supporting shoe for the ironwork.

Each shoe was anchored to the stonework by a pair of bolts ten cm (4 in) in diameter and 7.five m (25 ft) long. The foundations were completed on 30 June, and the erection of the ironwork began. The visible work on-site was complemented by the enormous amount of exacting preparatory work that took place behind the scenes: the drawing office produced 1,700 general drawings and 3,629 detailed drawings of the 18,038 unlike parts needed.[20]
The task of drawing the components was complicated by the complex angles involved in the pattern and the degree of precision required: the position of rivet holes was specified to within 1 mm (0.04 in) and angles worked out to ane second of arc.[21]
The finished components, some already riveted together into sub-assemblies, arrived on horse-drawn carts from a factory in the nearby Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret and were commencement bolted together, with the bolts being replaced with rivets as construction progressed. No drilling or shaping was done on site: if any part did non fit, it was sent dorsum to the mill for alteration. In all, 18,038 pieces were joined together using two.v million rivets.[eighteen]

At outset, the legs were synthetic every bit cantilevers, but about halfway to the first level construction was paused to create a substantial timber scaffold. This renewed concerns nearly the structural integrity of the tower, and sensational headlines such as “Eiffel Suicide!” and “Gustave Eiffel Has Gone Mad: He Has Been Confined in an Aviary” appeared in the tabloid press.[22]
At this stage, a modest “creeper” crane designed to move up the tower was installed in each leg. They made use of the guides for the lifts which were to be fitted in the iv legs. The critical stage of joining the legs at the showtime level was completed past the end of March 1888.[18]
Although the metalwork had been prepared with the utmost attention to detail, provision had been made to carry out small adjustments to precisely align the legs; hydraulic jacks were fitted to the shoes at the base of each leg, capable of exerting a force of 800 tonnes, and the legs were intentionally constructed at a slightly steeper angle than necessary, being supported past sandboxes on the scaffold. Although structure involved 300 on-site employees,[18]
due to Eiffel’s safety precautions and the apply of movable gangways, guardrails and screens, simply i person died.[23]

Lifts

The Roux, Combaluzier & Lepape lifts during construction. Note the drive sprockets and chain in the foreground.

Equipping the tower with adequate and safe passenger lifts was a major concern of the government commission overseeing the Exposition. Although some visitors could be expected to climb to the get-go level, or even the 2nd, lifts clearly had to be the main means of rise.[24]

Constructing lifts to achieve the first level was relatively straightforward: the legs were wide enough at the bottom and so nigh straight that they could comprise a straight track, and a contract was given to the French visitor Roux, Combaluzier & Lepape for ii lifts to exist fitted in the east and due west legs.[25]
Roux, Combaluzier & Lepape used a pair of endless chains with rigid, articulated links to which the car was attached. Lead weights on some links of the upper or render sections of the chains counterbalanced about of the car’due south weight. The car was pushed up from below, not pulled up from above: to prevent the concatenation buckling, it was enclosed in a conduit. At the bottom of the run, the chains passed around 3.9 g (12 ft 10 in) diameter sprockets. Smaller sprockets at the top guided the chains.[25]

The Otis lifts originally fitted in the n and south legs

Installing lifts to the second level was more of a challenge because a straight runway was impossible. No French company wanted to undertake the work. The European branch of Otis Brothers & Company submitted a proposal only this was rejected: the fair’s charter ruled out the apply of any foreign material in the construction of the belfry. The borderline for bids was extended just still no French companies put themselves frontward, and somewhen the contract was given to Otis in July 1887.[26]
Otis were confident they would eventually be given the contract and had already started creating designs.[
commendation needed
]

The motorcar was divided into two superimposed compartments, each property 25 passengers, with the elevator operator occupying an exterior platform on the first level. Motive power was provided past an inclined hydraulic ram 12.67 m (41 ft 7 in) long and 96.5 cm (38.0 in) in diameter in the tower leg with a stroke of 10.83 m (35 ft 6 in): this moved a carriage carrying vi sheaves. V fixed sheaves were mounted college upward the leg, producing an system similar to a cake and tackle simply interim in opposite, multiplying the stroke of the piston rather than the forcefulness generated. The hydraulic force per unit area in the driving cylinder was produced past a large open reservoir on the second level. After being exhausted from the cylinder, the water was pumped back up to the reservoir by ii pumps in the machinery room at the base of the s leg. This reservoir besides provided power to the lifts to the start level.[
citation needed
]

The original lifts for the journey between the second and tertiary levels were supplied by Léon Edoux. A pair of 81 m (266 ft) hydraulic rams were mounted on the second level, reaching nearly halfway up to the third level. I lift car was mounted on top of these rams: cables ran from the acme of this car up to sheaves on the third level and dorsum down to a second car. Each automobile travelled but half the altitude between the second and third levels and passengers were required to modify lifts halfway by ways of a short gangway. The 10-ton cars each held 65 passengers.[27]

Inauguration and the 1889 exposition

View of the 1889 World’southward Fair

The principal structural piece of work was completed at the terminate of March 1889 and, on 31 March, Eiffel celebrated by leading a group of authorities officials, accompanied past representatives of the press, to the top of the tower.[15]
Because the lifts were not even so in operation, the rising was made past pes, and took over an hour, with Eiffel stopping frequently to explain various features. Well-nigh of the political party chose to end at the lower levels, just a few, including the structural engineer, Émile Nouguier, the head of construction, Jean Compagnon, the President of the City Council, and reporters from
Le Figaro
and
Le Monde Illustré, completed the rising. At ii:35 pm, Eiffel hoisted a big Tricolour to the accompaniment of a 25-gun salute fired at the starting time level.[28]

There was still piece of work to exist done, particularly on the lifts and facilities, and the tower was not opened to the public until nine days after the opening of the exposition on six May; fifty-fifty so, the lifts had not been completed. The belfry was an instant success with the public, and nearly thirty,000 visitors made the 1,710-stride climb to the top earlier the lifts entered service on 26 May.[29]
Tickets cost ii francs for the kickoff level, 3 for the second, and 5 for the superlative, with half-cost access on Sundays,[30]
and past the end of the exhibition there had been 1,896,987 visitors.[3]

After nighttime, the tower was lit by hundreds of gas lamps, and a beacon sent out three beams of red, white and bluish lite. Two searchlights mounted on a circular rail were used to illuminate diverse buildings of the exposition. The daily opening and closing of the exposition were announced by a cannon at the top.[
commendation needed
]

Illumination of the tower at night during the exposition

On the 2d level, the French newspaper
Le Figaro
had an office and a printing press, where a special souvenir edition,
Le Figaro de la Tour, was made. There was also a pâtisserie.[
citation needed
]

At the top, there was a post function where visitors could send letters and postcards equally a memento of their visit. Graffitists were also catered for: sheets of paper were mounted on the walls each day for visitors to record their impressions of the tower. Gustave Eiffel described some of the responses every bit
vraiment curieuse
(“truly curious”).[31]

Famous visitors to the tower included the Prince of Wales, Sarah Bernhardt, “Buffalo Neb” Cody (his Wild West bear witness was an attraction at the exposition) and Thomas Edison.[29]
Eiffel invited Edison to his individual apartment at the height of the tower, where Edison presented him with ane of his phonographs, a new invention and one of the many highlights of the exposition.[32]
Edison signed the guestbook with this message:

To M Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of so gigantic and original specimen of modern Engineering from one who has the greatest respect and adoration for all Engineers including the Cracking Engineer the Bon Dieu, Thomas Edison.

Eiffel had a permit for the tower to stand for 20 years. Information technology was to be dismantled in 1909, when its ownership would revert to the City of Paris. The Urban center had planned to tear it down (office of the original contest rules for designing a tower was that it should be piece of cake to dismantle) merely as the belfry proved to be valuable for radio telegraphy, it was allowed to remain afterwards the decease of the allow, and from 1910 information technology besides became part of the International Time Service.[33]

Eiffel made use of his apartment at the acme of the belfry to behave out meteorological observations, and likewise used the tower to perform experiments on the action of air resistance on falling bodies.[34]

Subsequent events

For the 1900
Exposition Universelle, the lifts in the due east and w legs were replaced by lifts running as far as the 2nd level synthetic by the French firm Fives-Lille. These had a compensating mechanism to keep the flooring level as the angle of ascent inverse at the showtime level, and were driven by a similar hydraulic machinery equally the Otis lifts, although this was situated at the base of the belfry. Hydraulic pressure was provided past pressurised accumulators located near this mechanism.[26]
At the same fourth dimension the lift in the north pillar was removed and replaced by a staircase to the get-go level. The layout of both first and second levels was modified, with the space available for visitors on the second level. The original lift in the due south colonnade was removed 13 years later.[
citation needed
]

On nineteen October 1901, Alberto Santos-Dumont, flying his No.six airship, won a 100,000-franc prize offered past Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe for the kickoff person to brand a flying from St. Cloud to the Eiffel Tower and back in less than half an hour.[35]

Many innovations took place at the Eiffel Tower in the early 20th century. In 1910, Begetter Theodor Wulf measured radiant energy at the top and bottom of the belfry. He found more at the top than expected, incidentally discovering what are known today as cosmic rays.[36]
2 years later, on 4 Feb 1912, Austrian tailor Franz Reichelt died later on jumping from the offset level of the tower (a height of 57 m) to demonstrate his parachute pattern.[37]
In 1914, at the outbreak of Earth War I, a radio transmitter located in the tower jammed German radio communications, seriously hindering their advance on Paris and contributing to the Allied victory at the Kickoff Battle of the Marne.[38]
From 1925 to 1934, illuminated signs for Citroën adorned three of the tower’s sides, making information technology the tallest advertising space in the earth at the fourth dimension.[39]
In Apr 1935, the tower was used to make experimental depression-resolution television receiver transmissions, using a shortwave transmitter of 200 watts power. On 17 Nov, an improved 180-line transmitter was installed.[40]

On ii split but related occasions in 1925, the con artist Victor Lustig “sold” the tower for bit metal.[41]
A yr later, in February 1926, pilot Leon Collet was killed trying to wing under the tower. His shipping became entangled in an aerial belonging to a wireless station.[42]
A bust of Gustave Eiffel by Antoine Bourdelle was unveiled at the base of the n leg on two May 1929.[43]
In 1930, the tower lost the championship of the globe’south tallest structure when the Chrysler Building in New York City was completed.[44]
In 1938, the decorative arcade around the beginning level was removed.[45]

Upon the High german occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables were cut by the French. The tower was closed to the public during the occupation and the lifts were not repaired until 1946.[46]
In 1940, German language soldiers had to climb the tower to hoist a swastika-centered Reichskriegsflagge,[47]
but the flag was so large it blew away simply a few hours afterward, and was replaced by a smaller one.[48]
When visiting Paris, Hitler chose to stay on the ground. When the Allies were nearing Paris in Baronial 1944, Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris, to demolish the belfry along with the residuum of the urban center. Von Choltitz disobeyed the order.[49]
On 25 June, before the Germans had been driven out of Paris, the German flag was replaced with a Tricolour by two men from the French Naval Museum, who narrowly vanquish three men led by Lucien Sarniguet, who had lowered the Tricolour on 13 June 1940 when Paris fell to the Germans.[46]

A fire started in the television transmitter on 3 January 1956, damaging the superlative of the tower. Repairs took a yr, and in 1957, the nowadays radio aerial was added to the top.[l]
In 1964, the Eiffel Tower was officially declared to be a historical monument past the Minister of Cultural Affairs, André Malraux.[51]
A year afterward, an additional elevator system was installed in the north pillar.[52]

Co-ordinate to interviews, in 1967, Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau negotiated a hush-hush agreement with Charles de Gaulle for the belfry to be dismantled and temporarily relocated to Montreal to serve as a landmark and tourist attraction during Expo 67. The plan was allegedly vetoed by the company operating the belfry out of fear that the French regime could refuse permission for the belfry to be restored in its original location.[53]

In 1982, the original lifts betwixt the 2nd and third levels were replaced after 97 years in service. These had been closed to the public betwixt November and March considering the water in the hydraulic drive tended to freeze. The new cars operate in pairs, with one counterbalancing the other, and perform the journey in one stage, reducing the journey time from eight minutes to less than two minutes. At the same time, two new emergency staircases were installed, replacing the original spiral staircases. In 1983, the south pillar was fitted with an electrically driven Otis lift to serve the Jules Verne eating house.[
commendation needed
]

The Fives-Lille lifts in the e and west legs, fitted in 1899, were extensively refurbished in 1986. The cars were replaced, and a calculator system was installed to completely automate the lifts. The motive ability was moved from the h2o hydraulic system to a new electrically driven oil-filled hydraulic arrangement, and the original water hydraulics were retained solely as a weigh system.[52]
A service lift was added to the southward colonnade for moving pocket-size loads and maintenance personnel three years afterwards.[
commendation needed
]

Robert Moriarty flew a Beechcraft Bonanza under the tower on 31 March 1984.[54]
In 1987, A.J. Hackett made one of his offset bungee jumps from the meridian of the Eiffel Tower, using a special cord he had helped develop. Hackett was arrested by the police.[55]
On 27 Oct 1991, Thierry Devaux, along with mount guide Hervé Calvayrac, performed a series of acrobatic figures while bungee jumping from the second floor of the tower. Facing the Gnaw de Mars, Devaux used an electric winch between figures to go back upward to the 2nd floor. When firemen arrived, he stopped afterward the sixth spring.[56]

The tower is the focal indicate of New year’s day’southward Eve and Bastille Day (14 July) celebrations in Paris.

For its “Countdown to the Year 2000” celebration on 31 December 1999, flashing lights and high-powered searchlights were installed on the tower. During the last iii minutes of the twelvemonth, the lights were turned on starting from the base of the tower and continuing to the top to welcome 2000 with a huge fireworks show. An exhibition above a deli on the beginning floor commemorates this event. The searchlights on superlative of the belfry made information technology a beacon in Paris’s night sky, and 20,000 flashing bulbs gave the belfry a sparkly appearance for five minutes every hour on the hour.[57]

The lights sparkled blue for several nights to herald the new millennium on 31 Dec 2000. The sparkly lighting continued for xviii months until July 2001. The sparkling lights were turned on over again on 21 June 2003, and the display was planned to final for ten years before they needed replacing.[58]

The tower received its 200,000,000th guest on 28 November 2002.[59]
The tower has operated at its maximum capacity of nigh vii million visitors per year since 2003.[sixty]
In 2004, the Eiffel Belfry began hosting a seasonal ice rink on the first level.[61]
A glass flooring was installed on the outset level during the 2014 refurbishment.[62]

Design

Fabric

The Eiffel Belfry from beneath

The pool atomic number 26 (wrought iron) of the Eiffel Belfry weighs 7,300 tonnes,[63]
and the addition of lifts, shops and antennae have brought the full weight to approximately 10,100 tonnes.[64]
As a demonstration of the economy of design, if the 7,300 tonnes of metal in the structure were melted down, it would make full the square base, 125 metres (410 ft) on each side, to a depth of only 6.25 cm (2.46 in) bold the density of the metal to be 7.eight tonnes per cubic metre.[65]
Additionally, a cubic box surrounding the tower (324 thou × 125 thousand × 125 yard) would contain 6,200 tonnes of air, weighing almost as much as the atomic number 26 itself. Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to xviii cm (vii in) due to thermal expansion of the metallic on the side facing the sun.[66]

Air current considerations

When it was built, many were shocked past the tower’south daring form. Eiffel was accused of trying to create something creative with no regard to the principles of engineering. However, Eiffel and his squad – experienced bridge builders – understood the importance of wind forces, and knew that if they were going to build the tallest structure in the world, they had to exist sure information technology could withstand them. In an interview with the paper
Le Temps
published on xiv Feb 1887, Eiffel said:

Is information technology not true that the very conditions which give strength besides accommodate to the hidden rules of harmony? … Now to what miracle did I have to requite primary business concern in designing the Tower? It was wind resistance. Well then! I concur that the curvature of the monument’southward four outer edges, which is as mathematical adding dictated it should be … will requite a great impression of force and beauty, for it will reveal to the eyes of the observer the boldness of the design as a whole.[67]

He used graphical methods to determine the strength of the tower and empirical evidence to account for the effects of wind, rather than a mathematical formula. Close test of the belfry reveals a basically exponential shape.[68]
All parts of the tower were overdesigned to ensure maximum resistance to wind forces. The peak half was fifty-fifty assumed to take no gaps in the latticework.[69]
In the years since it was completed, engineers accept put forward various mathematical hypotheses in an endeavour to explicate the success of the design. The well-nigh recent, devised in 2004 afterward letters sent by Eiffel to the French Society of Civil Engineers in 1885 were translated into English, is described every bit a non-linear integral equation based on counteracting the wind pressure on any point of the tower with the tension between the structure elements at that indicate.[68]

The Eiffel Tower sways by up to 9 cm (iii.5 in) in the air current.[70]

Accommodation

Gustave Eiffel’south apartment

When originally built, the first level contained iii restaurants – i French, one Russian and one Flemish — and an “Anglo-American Bar”. After the exposition closed, the Flemish restaurant was converted to a 250-seat theatre. A promenade 2.6-metre (eight ft 6 in) wide ran around the exterior of the first level. At the top, there were laboratories for various experiments, and a small apartment reserved for Gustave Eiffel to entertain guests, which is now open to the public, complete with period decorations and lifelike mannequins of Eiffel and some of his notable guests.[71]

In May 2016, an apartment was created on the first level to accommodate four competition winners during the UEFA Euro 2016 football tournament in Paris in June. The apartment has a kitchen, two bedrooms, a lounge, and views of Paris landmarks including the Seine, Sacré-Cœur, and the Arc de Triomphe.[72]

Rider lifts

The arrangement of the lifts has been inverse several times during the tower’s history. Given the elasticity of the cables and the time taken to align the cars with the landings, each lift, in normal service, takes an average of eight minutes and 50 seconds to do the round trip, spending an average of one minute and fifteen seconds at each level. The boilerplate journey time between levels is 1 infinitesimal. The original hydraulic mechanism is on public display in a modest museum at the base of the east and due west legs. Because the mechanism requires frequent lubrication and maintenance, public admission is often restricted. The rope mechanism of the north belfry can be seen as visitors exit the lift.[73]

Engraved names

Names engraved on the tower

Gustave Eiffel engraved on the belfry the names of 72 French scientists, engineers and mathematicians in recognition of their contributions to the edifice of the belfry. Eiffel chose this “invocation of scientific discipline” because of his business concern over the artists’ protestation. At the first of the 20th century, the engravings were painted over, just they were restored in 1986–87 by the

Société Nouvelle d’exploitation de la Tour Eiffel
, a company operating the tower.[74]

Aesthetics

The tower is painted in three shades: lighter at the top, getting progressively darker towards the bottom to complement the Parisian sky.[75]
Information technology was originally blood-red brown; this inverse in 1968 to a statuary colour known as “Eiffel Tower Brown”.[76]

The just non-structural elements are the 4 decorative grill-work arches, added in Sauvestre’southward sketches, which served to make the tower look more substantial and to brand a more than impressive entrance to the exposition.[77]

A popular-culture movie platitude is that the view from a Parisian window ever includes the tower.[78]
In reality, since zoning restrictions limit the elevation of most buildings in Paris to seven storeys, just a small number of tall buildings have a clear view of the tower.[79]

Maintenance

Maintenance of the tower includes applying 60 tons of paint every seven years to forestall it from rusting. The belfry has been completely repainted at least 19 times since it was built. Atomic number 82 paint was still being used every bit recently as 2001 when the practice was stopped out of concern for the environment.[58]
[80]

Panorama of Paris from the Tour Eiffel

Panorama of Paris and its suburbs from the elevation of the Eiffel Belfry

Tourism

Send

The nearest Paris Métro station is Bir-Hakeim and the nearest RER station is Champ de Mars-Tour Eiffel.[81]
The tower itself is located at the intersection of the quai Branly and the Pont d’Iéna.

Popularity

Number of visitors per yr betwixt 1889 and 2004

More than than 250 million people have visited the tower since it was completed in 1889.[3]
In 2015, there were 6.91 million visitors.[82]
The tower is the most-visited paid monument in the earth.[83]
An average of 25,000 people ascend the tower every day which can upshot in long queues.[84]

Restaurants

The tower has two restaurants:

Le 58 Tour Eiffel

on the offset level, and

Le Jules Verne
, a gourmet eating house with its own lift on the 2nd level. This eating place has one star in the Michelin Cherry-red Guide. Information technology was run by the multi-Michelin star chef Alain Ducasse from 2007 to 2017.[85]
Starting May 2019, it will be managed past three-star chef Frédéric Anton.[86]
Information technology owes its name to the famous science-fiction writer Jules Verne. Additionally, there is a champagne bar at the top of the Eiffel Belfry.

From 1937 until 1981, there was a eating place near the top of the tower. It was removed due to structural considerations; engineers had determined it was too heavy and was causing the tower to sag.[87]
This restaurant was sold to an American restaurateur and transported to New York and and then New Orleans. It was rebuilt on the edge of New Orleans’ Garden District as a eating house and subsequently event hall.[88]

Replicas

As one of the most iconic landmarks in the world, the Eiffel Tower has been the inspiration for the creation of many replicas and similar towers. An early example is Blackpool Tower in England. The mayor of Blackpool, Sir John Bickerstaffe, was so impressed on seeing the Eiffel Tower at the 1889 exposition that he commissioned a similar belfry to be built in his boondocks. Information technology opened in 1894 and is 158.i thou (518 ft) tall.[89]
Tokyo Tower in Japan, congenital as a communications belfry in 1958, was also inspired by the Eiffel Tower.[90]

There are various scale models of the tower in the United States, including a one-half-scale version at the Paris Las Vegas, Nevada, one in Paris, Texas built in 1993, and two 1:iii scale models at Kings Island, located in Mason, Ohio, and Kings Dominion, Virginia, amusement parks opened in 1972 and 1975 respectively. Two 1:iii scale models tin be plant in China, i in Durango, United mexican states that was donated by the local French community, and several across Europe.[91]

In 2011, the TV show
Pricing the Priceless
on the National Geographic Channel speculated that a full-size replica of the tower would cost approximately US$480 million to build.[92]
This would exist more than x times the price of the original (nearly 8 million in 1890 Francs; ~US$twoscore million in 2018 dollars).

Communications

The tower has been used for making radio transmissions since the beginning of the 20th century. Until the 1950s, sets of aerial wires ran from the cupola to anchors on the Avenue de Suffren and Champ de Mars. These were connected to longwave transmitters in minor bunkers. In 1909, a permanent secret radio eye was built near the south pillar, which still exists today. On xx November 1913, the Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower as an aerial, exchanged wireless signals with the U.s.a. Naval Observatory, which used an aerial in Arlington, Virginia. The object of the transmissions was to measure the deviation in longitude between Paris and Washington, D.C.[93]
Today, radio and digital television signals are transmitted from the Eiffel Tower.

FM radio

Frequency kW Service
87.8 MHz 10 France Inter
89.0 MHz x RFI Paris
89.9 MHz 6 TSF Jazz
90.iv MHz 10 Nostalgie
xc.ix MHz 4 Chante France

Digital television

A boob tube antenna was showtime installed on the tower in 1957, increasing its peak by 18.vii g (61.4 ft). Work carried out in 2000 added a further v.iii thou (17.4 ft), giving the electric current summit of 324 one thousand (1,063 ft).[58]
Analogue television signals from the Eiffel Tower ceased on 8 March 2011.

Frequency VHF UHF kW Service
182.25 MHz 6 100 Culvert+
479.25 MHz 22 500 France 2
503.25 MHz 25 500 TF1
527.25 MHz 28 500 France 3
543.25 MHz 30 100 French republic 5
567.25 MHz 33 100 M6

Illumination copyright

The Eiffel Tower illuminated in 2015

The tower and its image have been in the public domain since 1993, lxx years later Eiffel’southward death.[94]
In June 1990 a French court ruled that a special lighting display on the tower in 1989 to marking the tower’southward 100th anniversary was an “original visual creation” protected by copyright. The Court of Cassation, France’s judicial court of last resort, upheld the ruling in March 1992.[95]
The

Société d’Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel

(SETE) now considers whatever illumination of the tower to be a split piece of work of fine art that falls under copyright.[96]
Every bit a result, the SNTE alleges that it is illegal to publish gimmicky photographs of the lit tower at night without permission in France and some other countries for commercial use.[97]
[98]
For this reason, it is often rare to find images or videos of the lit tower at dark on stock image sites,[99]
and media outlets rarely circulate images or videos of it.[100]

The imposition of copyright has been controversial. The Director of Documentation for what was then called the

Société Nouvelle d’exploitation de la Tour Eiffel

(SNTE), Stéphane Dieu, commented in 2005: “Information technology is actually just a mode to manage commercial employ of the image, so that it isn’t used in means [of which] we don’t approve”.[101]
SNTE made over €1 million from copyright fees in 2002.[102]
Even so, it could also be used to restrict the publication of tourist photographs of the tower at night, too as hindering not-profit and semi-commercial publication of images of the illuminated tower.[103]

The copyright claim itself has never been tested in courts to appointment, co-ordinate to a 2014 article in the
Art Law Periodical, and at that place has never been an endeavor to track downwards millions of netizens who have posted and shared their images of the illuminated tower on the Net worldwide. Information technology added, still, that permissive situation may arise on commercial use of such images, like in a mag, on a flick poster, or on production packaging.[104]

French doctrine and jurisprudence allows pictures incorporating a copyrighted work as long as their presence is incidental or accessory to the subject area existence represented,[105]
a reasoning alike to the
de minimis
dominion. Therefore, SETE may be unable to claim copyright on photographs of Paris which happen to include the lit tower.

Height changes

The pinnacle tiptop of the Eiffel Tower has changed multiple times over the years as described in the chart below.[106]

From To Summit chiliad Height ft Blazon of addition Remarks
1889 1957 312.27 one,025 Flagpole Architectural height of 300 k 984 ft. Tallest freestanding structure in the earth until surpassed by the Chrysler edifice in 1930. Tallest belfry in the world until surpassed by the KCTV Broadcast Belfry in 1956.
1957 1991 320.75 1,052 Antenna Broadcast antenna added in 1957 which made it the tallest belfry in the earth until the Tokyo Tower was completed the following year in 1958.
1991 1994 317.96 1,043 Antenna change
1994 2000 318.seven one,046 Antenna change
2000 2022 324 1,063 Antenna change
2022 Current 330 1,083 Antenna change Digital radio antenna hoisted on March 15, 2022.[107]

Taller structures

The Eiffel Tower was the earth’s tallest structure when completed in 1889, a distinction it retained until 1929 when the Chrysler Building in New York City was topped out.[108]
The tower besides lost its standing as the world’due south tallest tower to the Tokyo Tower in 1958 but retains its status every bit the tallest freestanding (non-guyed) structure in French republic.

Lattice towers taller than the Eiffel Tower

Name Elevation pinnacle Twelvemonth State Town Remarks
Tokyo Skytree 634 m (2,080 ft) 2011 Nihon Tokyo
Kyiv Television set Belfry 385 thou (1,263 ft) 1973 Ukraine Kyiv
Dragon Belfry 336 m (1,102 ft) 2000 Communist china Harbin
Tokyo Belfry 333 one thousand (1,093 ft) 1958 Japan Tokyo
WITI Television set Tower 329.four m (1,081 ft) 1962 United States Shorewood, Wisconsin
Petrograd TV Tower 326 chiliad (1,070 ft) 1962 Russia Saint petersburg

Structures in French republic taller than the Eiffel Tower

Proper name Pinnacle pinnacle Yr Construction type Town Remarks
Longwave transmitter Allouis 350 chiliad (1,150 ft) 1974 Guyed mast Allouis
HWU transmitter 350 thou (i,150 ft) 1971 Guyed mast Rosnay Military machine VLF transmitter; multiple masts
Viaduc de Millau 343 m (one,125 ft) 2004 Span colonnade Millau
Boob tube Mast Niort-Maisonnay 330 1000 (one,080 ft) 1978 Guyed mast Niort
Transmitter Le Mans-Mayet 342 one thousand (i,122 ft) 1993 Guyed mast Mayet
La Regine transmitter 330 m (1,080 ft) 1973 Guyed mast Saissac Military machine VLF transmitter
Transmitter Roumoules 330 m (1,080 ft) 1974 Guyed mast Roumoules Spare transmission mast for longwave; insulated confronting ground

Run across likewise

  • List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris region
  • List of tallest buildings and structures in the world
  • List of tallest towers in the world
  • List of tallest freestanding structures in the world
  • List of tallest freestanding steel structures
  • List of transmission sites
  • Lattice tower
  • Eiffel Belfry, 1909–1928 painting series by Robert Delaunay

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    Quid de la bout Eiffel. R. Laffont. ISBN978-ii-221-06488-seven.


  • The Engineer: The Paris Exhibition. Vol. XLVII. London: Office for Advertisements and Publication. 3 May 1889.

  • Harriss, Joseph (1975).
    The Eiffel Belfry: Symbol of an Age. London: Paul Elek. ISBN0236400363.

  • Harvie, David I. (2006).
    Eiffel: The Genius Who Reinvented Himself. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton. ISBN0-7509-3309-seven.

  • Jonnes, Jill (2009).
    Eiffel’southward Tower: The Thrilling Story Backside Paris’due south Beloved Monument …. Penguin. ISBN978-ane-101-05251-8.

  • Loyrette, Henri (1985).
    Eiffel, united nations Ingenieur et Son Oeuvre. Rizzoli. ISBN978-0-8478-0631-seven.

  • Musée d’Orsay (1989).
    1889: la Tour Eiffel et l’Exposition Universelle. Editions de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Ministère de la Culture, de la Communication, des Grands Travaux et du Bicentenaire. ISBN978-2-7118-2244-7.

  • Vogel, Robert M. (1961). “Elevator Systems of the Eiffel Belfry, 1889”.
    U.s.a. National Museum Message. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
    228: xx–21.

  • Watson, William (1892).
    Paris Universal Exposition: Civil Engineering, Public Works, and Compages. Washington, D.C.: Government Publishing Role.

External links


  • Official website

    Edit this at Wikidata
  • Eiffel Belfry at
    Structurae
Records
Preceded by

Washington Monument


World’s tallest structure


1889–1931
312 g (one,024 ft)[1]
Succeeded past

Chrysler Building


Globe’s tallest tower


1889–1956
Succeeded by

KCTV Broadcast Tower

Preceded by

KCTV Broadcast Tower


World’south tallest tower


1957–1958
Succeeded by

Tokyo Tower


  1. ^


    “Official website–figures”. 30 October 2017. Retrieved
    xv September
    2019
    .




The Eiffel Tower Is an Iron Lattice

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower

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